Relief never looked so good
This month 115 years ago, a German chemist named Felix Hoffman is credited with successfully creating a chemically pure and stable form of acetylsalicylic acid to be used as a pain reliever. Hoffman’s employer – the pharmaceutical company Bayer – trademarked it: Aspirin. Hoffmann was looking for a better treatment for his father’s rheumatoid arthritis than salicylic acid, which had an unpleasant taste and serious side effects like stomach bleeding.
The image above, courtesy of The Wellcome Trust, depicts aspirin crystals. The drug is among the most widely used in the world, with more than 40,000 tons consumed each year. Americans alone are estimated to take 15 billion tablets of aspirin or its generic equivalent annually.
Aside from the treatment of minor pains and aches, aspirin is used as an anti-inflammatory medication, a fever reducer and as a preventative measure for heart attacks and stroke (due to its blood-thinning effects).
Sorry it’s a little blurry, but very helpful!
Guidelines for HTN tx in women.
AANP Conference 2012: Orlando
Furosemide and bumetanide are both loop diuretics.
The loop of Henle is U-shaped like the letter they both share (U) then this is a helpful
U-shape (loop of Henle)
ACE Inhibitors- How do they work?
Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes the blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing the vessels. This increases the pressure within the vessels causing high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in the blood by the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).
ACE inhibitors are medications that slow (inhibit) the activity of the enzyme ACE, which decreases the production of angiotensin II. As a result, the blood vessels enlarge or dilate, and blood pressure is reduced. This lower blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve the function of a failing heart.
Easy enough right? Click here for more information. :)
Uterine relaxants [aka Tocolytics] suppress preterm labor, which is defined as less than 37 weeks of gestation. These are the main meds used:
It’s Not My Time!:
1- Magnesium Sulfate [treatment of choice]
2- Terbutaline [Brethine]
3- Nifedipine [Procardia] - CCB
4- Indomethacin - [NSAID]
…think of the number 10…
H E P A R I N (7 letters) + 3 (PTT) = 10 (or the 2 T’s look like an H)
C O U M A D I N (8 letters) + 2 (PT) = 10
Heparin- Protamine sulfate (just remember P M S)
Coumadin- Vitamin K (just remember the hard “C” at the beginning of coumadin!)
Treatment of CHF, think UNLOAD FAST:
U sit Upright
F Fluids- decrease
A Afterload - decrease
S Sodium - decrease
T Tests: dig level, ABG, K+
Found a good site to get some review Q’s in for pharm:
Taken WITH Meals:
Allupurinol, Apresoline, ASA, Dilantin, Flagyl, Inderal, Pancreatin. Tagamet.
Taken on EMPTY stomach:
Ampicilin, pcn, Ferrous Sulfate, INH, Isordil
Taken BEFORE Meals:
Insulin, Valium, Atropine, Bactrim
Taken AFTER Meals:
Clozaril, Deltasone, Lithium, MAOI, Nardil, Pyridium, Ritalin, Thorazine, Tofranil
Taken IN THE MORNING:
Aminophylline, Epi, ADriamycin, Mannitol, Tamofen, Synthroid
A group of drugs with basic chemical structures consisting of 3 benzene rings. Examples include but are not limited to; Amitriptyline, Doxepin and Imipramine.
Amitriptyline : Has a mild tranquillizing action.
Side effects - Tingling of limbs, numbness,…
MED REVIEW MONDAY
Azithromycin is one of the world’s best selling antibiotics. It is derived from erythromycin. Because of its non-specific nature, it is prescribed for a wide variety of infections, including the following: ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, cellulitis, sinus infection, Lyme disease, pertussis, salmonella, pelvic inflammatory disease and chlamydia.
Side effects include diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Like with most antibiotics, oral contraceptives are not effective during the cycle(s) during which the drug is consumed.
Azithromycin comes in three forms: oral suspension, IV injection or tablets. It’s most commonly seen in tablet form as the “Z-pak” (6 doses, the first day including a double dosage) or “Tri-pack” (3 doses).
A guide to Medication Calculations from the folks at Khan Academy =)
Low blood levels of potassium increase the likelihood of TOXICITY from digoxin, a medication used to treat abnormal heart rhythms and heart failure.
Here’s a formula for you to remember:
DIGOXIN + LOW POTASSIUM = TOXICITY
Normal Digoxin Levels: 0.5-2.0 ng/mL
Over 2.0 ng/mL = considered toxic